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2018年GRE考试《阅读理解》练习题及答案汇总

2018-03-23 来源:思润教育
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摘要:GRE阅读题目解析:治疗胃酸的药,训练自己用这种方式思考,否则你几乎无法进行任何分析性写作,也无法读懂别人的分析性写作。如果你连论文都看不明白,人家大学招你去干嘛呢,估计也就是直接卖你个毕业证了。

  GRE阅读题目解析:治疗胃酸的药


  Columnist: Until very recently, Presorbin and Veltrex, two medications used to block excess stomach acid, were both available only with a prescription written by a doctor. In an advertisement for Presorbin, its makers argue that Presorbin is superior on the grounds that doctors have written 200 million prescriptions for Presorbin, as compared to 100 million for Veltrex. It can be argued that the number of prescriptions written is never a worthwhile criterion for comparing the merits of medicines, but that the advertisement’s argument is absurd is quite adequately revealed by observing that Presorbin was available as a prescription medicine years before Veltrex was.

  1. In the columnist’s argument, the two highlighted portions play which of the following roles?

  A. The first is a claim that the columnist’s argument seeks to clarify; the second states a conclusion drawn about one possible interpretation of that claim.

  B. The first identifies the conclusion of an argument that the columnist’s argument is directed against; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  C. The first states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument; the second states a conclusion that the columnist draws in defending that conclusion against an objection.

  D. The first identifies an assumption made in an argument that the columnist's argument is directed against; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  E. The first is a claim that has been offered as evidence to support a position that the columnist opposes; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  1

  Columnist: Until very recently, Presorbin and Veltrex, two medications used to block excess stomach acid, were both available only with a prescription written by a doctor.

  专栏作者:直到最近,P 和 V,两种治疗胃酸过多的药,都是处方药。

  2

  In an advertisement for Presorbin, its makers argue that Presorbin is superior on the grounds that doctors have written 200 million prescriptions for Presorbin, as compared to 100 million for Veltrex.

  在 P 的一则广告中,生产商认为 P 更好,根据是医生已经对 P 开出了两亿份处方,而 V 只有一亿。

  3

  It can be argued that the number of prescriptions written is never a worthwhile criterion for comparing the merits of medicines, but that the advertisement’s argument is absurd is quite adequately revealed by observing that Presorbin was available as a prescription medicine years before Veltrex was.

  当然可以反驳说,开出过多少份处方从来不是比较药物优劣的恰当标准,然而只要注意到 P 作为一种处方药比 V 上市早若干年,就足见该广告逻辑之荒谬。

  (此句涉及 but 引导的一种让步关系(很多时候我们忽略了 but 的让步意味,只把它等同于汉语中的 “ 转折 ”,二者还是有区别的):

  让步条件,处方数不是评价药物好坏的标准(这很好理解,因为有价格,医保是否覆盖等很多因素影响一种药的销量);

  强调内容,广告逻辑荒谬。

  前半句被让步掉了,(尽管)这不是一种评价药物优劣的恰当标准,(让步,即便我们就用这种不恰当的标准来评价两种药 —— 假定让步条件为真)结论仍然是有问题的,因为这种比较不公平,P 比 V 上市早若干年。)

  1. In the columnist’s argument, the two highlighted portions play which of the following roles?

  A. The first is a claim that the columnist’s argument seeks to clarify; the second states a conclusion drawn about one possible interpretation of that claim.

  B. The first identifies the conclusion of an argument that the columnist’s argument is directed against; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  C. The first states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument; the second states a conclusion that the columnist draws in defending that conclusion against an objection.

  D. The first identifies an assumption made in an argument that the columnist's argument is directed against; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  E. The first is a claim that has been offered as evidence to support a position that the columnist opposes; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  选 B

  本题考查批判性思维 critical thinking 基础,即分辨什么是结论 conclusions,什么是证据 evidence 或 理由 reasons。

  不理解这种问法,说明你还没进入 GRE 语文的基本语境,去读 Asking the Right Questions 吧,趁还来得及。

  本文篇幅很短,所以逻辑关系相当清晰,简述如下。

  1)广告逻辑:

  结论 conclusion 1:P 比 V 好。

  理由 reason 1:医生开出的 P 处方比 V 多一倍。

  2)专栏作者逻辑:

  结论 conclusion 2:广告是放屁。

  理由 reason 2-1:处方数量不能如实反映药物的疗效。

  理由 reason 2-2:P 比 V 上市早。

  综上,选 B。


  训练自己用这种方式思考,否则你几乎无法进行任何分析性写作,也无法读懂别人的分析性写作。如果你连论文都看不明白,人家大学招你去干嘛呢,估计也就是直接卖你个毕业证了。

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